International Journal Of Bilogical Sciences
Androgen Receptor Activation in Castration-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Src-Family and Ack1 Tyrosine Kinases
Irwin H. Gelman
Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Corresponding author: Tel: 716-845-7681 Fax: 716-845-1698 Irwin.email@example.com
There is growing appreciation that castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP) is driven by the continued expression of androgen receptor (AR). AR activation in CR-CaP through various mechanisms, including AR overexpression, expression of AR splice variants or mutants, increased expression of co-regulator proteins, and by post-translational modification, allows for the induction of AR-regulated genes in response to very low levels of tissue-expressed, so-called intracrine androgens, resulting in pathways that mediate CaP proliferation, anti-apoptosis and oncogenic aggressiveness. The current review focuses on the role played by Src-family (SFK) and Ack1 non-receptor tyrosine kinases in activating AR through direct phosphorylation, respectively, on tyrosines 534 or 267, and how these modifications facilitate progression to CR-CaP. The fact that SFK and Ack1 are central mediators for multiple growth factor receptor signaling pathways that become activated in CR-CaP, especially in the context of metastatic growth in the bone, has contributed to recent therapeutic trials using SFK/Ack1 inhibitors in monotherapy or in combination with antagonists of the AR activation axis.
Src-family tyrosine kinases, Ack1, androgen receptor, prostate cancer, castration-recurrence.
Date Deposited : 12 Feb 2016 09:55
Official URL: http://www.ijbs.com/v10i6
Last Modified : 12 Feb 2016 09:55
Volume 10, Number 6, - 2014 , ISSN 1449-2288
Full Text Original