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.: Home > Nature and Science > 2012 > Volume 10 Number 9 > Adedeji OB1, Okerentugba PO2, Okonko IO2

Use of Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Biomarkers in Monitoring Environmental and Aquatic Pollution

Adedeji OB1, Okerentugba PO2, Okonko IO2
1Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria 2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891
Abstract :

This paper gives an overview of the variety of animals and plants that are available for use as environmental and aquatic pollution monitors. Most aquatic and environmental management authorities required assessing the potential toxicity of metals-contaminated effluent at its point of discharge to avoid the determining effects of toxic metals in high quality food. Otherwise changes in fish health due to pollution may decline in fish population.Understanding the effect of toxicants on fish innate immunity supports the larger ecotoxicological goal of comprehending the actions of ecotoxicants on fish populations. There have been various reports that the utilization of a single species or target biomarker is not appropriate or scientifically sound for the monitoring of several toxic pollutants. Recent years have seen the development of biological measurements (biomarkers) as tools for use in monitoring and environmental impact assessment, such biomarkers being indicative of contaminant exposure and/or impact. The results of the study by most researchers indicated that biological effect monitoring is the only appropriate method providing a reliable environmental risk assessment. The advances in molecular genetics have led to an upsurge in interest in most susceptibility factors, and identification of polymorphisms of various enzymes has become possible.Among various biochemicals, cellular and physiological systems, certain innate immune responses are considered as suitable biomarkers for monitoring biological effects of pollution. Ongoing search for “ultra-high risk” individuals may be fruitful, but probably only relevant to a small segment of potentially exposed populations. The monitoring efficacy can be greatly improved by using batteries of non-specific biomarkers comprising different biological levels. Thus, the use of molecular, biochemical and cellular biomarkers has proved to be very useful in environmental and aquatic pollution monitoring.

Keywords :
Aquatic pollution monitoring, Biochemical biomarkers, Cellular biomarkers, Environmental risk assessment, Molecular biomarkers

Date Deposited : 18 May 2016 19:50

Last Modified : 18 May 2016 19:50

Official URL: http://www.sciencepub.net/nature/

Volume 10, Number 9, - 2012 , ISSN 1545-0740

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