A number of studies have evaluated two functional polymorphisms on p53 Arg72Pro and GSTP1 Ile105Val, in relation to esophageal cancer susceptibility. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. This meta-analysis on 2919 cases and 4074 controls for p53 Arg72Pro and 1885 cases and 2194 controls for GSTP1 Ile105Val from 13 published case-control studies showed that no significant general main effects for GSTP1 Ile105Val on esophageal cancer risk. However, we found that the p53 Arg72Pro was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer ((Pro/Arg +Pro/Pro) versus Arg/Arg: OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.06-1.36) without any between-study heterogeneity.
In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, we found that the increased esophageal cancer risk associated with p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was more evident in Asian group ((Pro/Arg +Pro/Pro) versus Arg/Arg: OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.14-1.60, P=0.09 for heterogeneity test), although we still failed to find any significant association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk in different ethnicity. These results suggest that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism, but not GSTP1 Ile105Val, may contribute to esophageal cancer development, especially in Asian. Additional well-designed large studies were required for the validation of this association.